The overall target of Action 5 is to complete the life cycle assessment, that is to assess environmental impacts and – according to the relative results – lead to systems optimization, meaning the optimization of the full cycle of transportation, handling and loading/unloading phases of widely used fuels, oils and other hazardous substances in Greece.
The assessment will comprise the results from the LCA analysis taking place in Action 4, as well as the results from the on-site measurements and the laboratory analysis of important HSE parameters as examined in REACH requirements (MSDS) taking place in Action 3. With this approach a combined assessment of the results of the two critical actions (Actions 3 and 4) of the project is succeeded, integrated in the preparation of the guidelines to be introduced to the protocol development in Action 6.
The successful implementation of this Action apparently depends on the successful carrying out of Actions 3 and 4 and the sufficiency of the results obtained during these actions. No other constraints are anticipated especially given the great experience of the working group in the assessment of the environmental impacts of the LCI results, the expertise on the REACH framework and the creation of MSDS, the deep knowledge of the industrial practice processes related to transportation and handling of HazChem and the on-site measurements procedures, and finally the expertise in development specifications, guidelines and technical manuals by all partners.
During this Action trips to several regions (Athens, Corinth, Crete, etc) will be carried out in order for the partners to collaborate and successfully implement the sub actions presented below as well as to assess the progress of the project.
TUC will be the overall responsible beneficiary for this Action.
Sub Action 5.1: Assessment of the environmental impact of LCI results and the results from REACH analysis in the selected HazChem classes under study
Goal of sub action 5.1 is to assess the environmental impacts of the HazChem system’s life cycle inventory (LCI) results and the results from the on-site measurements and analysis from Action 3, in order to better understand their environmental significance.
The LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) for each case study is the main outcome of Action 4 and it results from the LCA implementation with the LCA specialized software utilizing the implanted databanks. The impact assessment of the LCI is obtained using the LCA software. The impact assessment is performed with the use of the impact assessment methods already integrated in the LCA software. Part of the experimental data (results from Action 3) is going to be incorporated to the inputs of the LCA models developed. This way the impacts from the entire cycle of transportation and handling of HazChem will be assessed from a holistic point of view and the impact assessment validity will be enhanced with data and information from the actual industrial practice.
Environmental impact assessment is one of the most difficult processes since it is always difficult to compare the impact of one pollutant with the impact of another. Therefore, comparisons for one pollutant among different case studies will be performed and an attempt to compare pollutants based on existing toxicity data will be performed. Based on that, an impact index will be assigned to each pollutant so that an overall hazard index for each case study will be calculated. In addition, socio-economical factors will be taken into account during hazard index assignment (e.g. One pollutant can be more important to one specific area due to land uses).
Moreover, in this sub action the impacts from emissions to air, water and soil, deriving from mass loss (according to the mass balances) during normal operations in transportation and loading/unloading phases of HazChem, as well as from spills or accidental releases will be available to evaluate along with the emissions from the cycle of operations of transportation and loading/unloading themselves. This will lead in important conclusions allowing comparisons and identification of those stages of the life cycle that can be optimised / redesigned, in order for the environmental impacts related to the cycle of transportation and handling during loading/unloading of HazChem to be able to be diminished.
The experimental data will be used in two ways. Part of the experimental data will be used for the determination of material flows (inputs/outputs) and the energy coefficients that will be incorporated within the LCA models for the life cycle system of transportation, handling and loading / unloading phases of HazChem taking into account the probability of accidental spills in surface waters or on soil. On the other hand, the experimental data will contain valuable information on concentrations/ toxicity/ etc. of several pollutant substances, deriving from the on-site measurements and analysis and thus providing a realistic picture of the actual industrial field. This information will be used as a reference that will allow for comparisons with the results from the impact assessment and also for validation of the results.
In addition, the novel LCA system developed could be used as an integrated decision support tool for all actors involved in this field in order to apply practices of high efficiency, effectiveness and environmental – ecological performance
Sub action 5.1 is expected to start in the beginning of Action 5.
Methods employed: Impact assessment of LCI results via the LCA specialized software used for the development of the LCA framework in Action 4, by implementing impact assessment methods integrated in the software. To this effect the results from the REACH analysis taking place in action 3 are going to be incorporated to the inputs of the LCA models in order to assess the impacts from the entire cycle of transportation and handling of HazChem from a holistic point of view and enhance the impact assessment validity with data and information from the actual industrial practice.
Beneficiary responsible for implementation: TUC
Sub Action 5.2: Recommendations and development of specifications for the system optimisation and improvement
This action will be based on the results of sub action 5.1 as well as the LCI results of Action 4 and the results of Action 3.
At this point the preceding three Actions of this project will have recorded and assessed the existing situation in regards to relevant legislation, current industrial practices and procedures in the field of transportation and handling of HazChem, the REACH framework on HSE parameters with the implementation of on-site measurements regarding these parameters, as well as the application of the development and implementation of the LCA framework. They will also have identified the major sources of pollution throughout the whole cycle of transportation and handling of HazChem via the environmental impact assessment of the LCI results.
The aim of sub action 5.2, based on the results of the previous actions, is to develop specifications and actions for the improvement of the procedures during the handling and transportation of widely used fuels and oils and other HazChem in Greece, for all stages involved in this process. These specifications will be communicated to the interested stakeholders and parties, in order to make a first step towards the improvement of the environmental performance of the actors involved in the transportation and handling of HazChem in Greece.
Methods employed: Direct comparisons can me made both horizontally (overall hazard potential of each case study as well as vertically (among similar pollutants for all case studies). The weak points in regard to the environmental burden for each case study will be identified and system improvement can take place.
Beneficiary responsible for implementation: TUC. Collaboration with MOH and AVINOIL
Sub Action 5.3: Preparations of guidelines to be introduced to the protocol
The aim of sub action 5.3 is the development of a set of introductory guidelines to the Protocol according to the principles of SCC and in line with the culture of Greek end users, SMEs, industry, transport companies, petrol stations, etc. Guidelines will contain actions for reducing accidental releases and environmental damage/impacts during the transportation of petrochemical products and other HazChem (see Action 6).
Different guidelines will be developed for each category of users implicated with HazChem (e.g. end users, SMEs, industry, transport companies, petrol stations, etc.). The preparation of guidelines will be carried out by experts groups taking into account the assessment and evaluation of the results of all project actions (LCA and REACH based analysis). The guidelines will mainly address aspects such as:
- endorsing quality control for legal and procedural adherence
- clarifying requirements
- minimum standards
- technical guidance
- information flows between impact assessment stakeholders
- filing gaps in existing procedures and guidance
- filing gaps in implementation of Strictly Controlled Conditions
- providing a tool for training
- improving awareness, etc
Guidelines in this respect are meant to be one of several tools available to impact assessment practitioners and process managers, to science and technology, project cycle management and even models for economic development. They are defined by a number of different approaches, including the policies and priorities of the controlling authorities and bodies concerned or by the evaluation of a number of tangible evidence (e.g. experimental measurements).
The preparation of guidelines will be the final step of this action. The developed guidelines will be communicated to the main stakeholders of this project, in order to make a first step towards the improvement of the environmental performance of the actions involved in the transportation and handling of HazChem in Greece.
Sub action 5.3 is expected to start after sub action 5.2.
Beneficiary responsible for implementation: TUC in collaboration with MOH and AVINOIL